Retail marketing needs to account for the unique facets of retail stores. A number of authors have argued for the inclusion of two new Ps, namely, Personnel and Presentation since these contribute to the customer’s unique retail experience and are the principal basis for retail differentiation. Some scholars also recommend adding Retail Format (i.e. retail formula) since it contributes to customer expectations.  The modified retail marketing mix is often called the 6 Ps of retailing. 
Businesses that have gone public are subject to regulations concerning their internal governance, such as how executive officers’ compensation is determined, and when and how information is disclosed to shareholders and to the public. In the United States, these regulations are primarily implemented and enforced by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Other western nations have comparable regulatory bodies. The regulations are implemented and enforced by the China Securities Regulation Commission (CSRC) in China. In Singapore, the regulatory authority is the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), and in Hong Kong, it is the Securities and Futures Commission (SFC).
Marketing practice tended to be seen as a creative industry in the past, which included advertising, distribution and selling. However, because the academic study of marketing makes extensive use of social sciences, psychology, sociology, mathematics, economics, anthropology and neuroscience, the profession is now widely recognized as a science,[not in citation given]allowing numerous universities to offer Master-of-Science (MSc) programs.[not in citation given]
Organizational orientation: In this sense, a firm’s marketing department is often seen as of prime importance within the functional level of an organization. Information from an organization’s marketing department would be used to guide the actions of other department’s within the firm. As an example, a marketing department could ascertain (via marketing research) that consumers desired a new type of product, or a new usage for an existing product. With this in mind, the marketing department would inform the R&D department to create a prototype of a product/service based on consumers’ new desires.
Inspired by the idea of marketers as mixers of ingredients, Neil Borden one of Culliton’s colleagues at Harvard, coined the phrase the marketing mix and used it wherever possible. According to Borden’s own account, he used the term, ‘marketing mix’ consistently from the late 1940s.  For instance, he is on record as having used the term, ‘marketing mix,’ in his presidential address given to the American Marketing Association in 1953.  In the mid-1960s, Borden published a retrospective article detailing the early history of the marketing mix in which he claims that he was inspired by Culliton’s idea of ‘mixers’, and credits himself with coining the term, ‘marketing mix’. Borden’s continued and consistent use of the phrase, “marketing mix,” contributed to the process of popularising the concept throughout the 1940s and 50s.
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Marketing degrees are not only found at multiple levels, but with varying concentrations and opportunities for specialization. Some degrees are for entry-level positions and provide a solid foundational knowledge base for any number of marketing careers. Other degrees are more specific, such as the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), which is targeted toward research and teaching, and offer specialty areas such as behavioral and quantitative marketing. Many of these unique marketing degrees found at the graduate level also prepare students for leadership and management roles upon graduation.
Jump up ^ Banting, P.M. & Ross, R.E., “The marketing mix: A Canadian perspective,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, vol. 1, no. 1, 1973, doi:10.1007/BF02729310; van Waterschoot, W. and van den Bulte, C., “The 4P Classification of the Marketing Mix Revisited,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 56, No. 4, 1992, p. 84; see also Culliton’s original article in Culliton, J. The Management of Marketing Costs, Research Bulletin, Harvard University, 1948
The coursework will vary greatly, based on the student’s individual choice and the specialized area covered by the certificate. However, some sample classes a student can find in a certificate program include:
The marketing orientation is perhaps the most common orientation used in contemporary marketing. It is a customer-centric approach that involves a firm basing its marketing program around products that suit new consumer tastes. Firms adopting a marketing orientation typically engage in extensive market research to gauge consumer desires, use R&D to develop a product attuned to the revealed information, and then utilize promotion techniques to ensure consumers are aware of the product’s existence and the benefits it can deliver.  Scales designed to measure a firm’s overall market orientation have been developed and found to be relatively robust in a variety of contexts. 
What is the impact of mental health in the workplace? 3:21 Health reporter and columnist André Picard leads a panel discussion on the impacts of mental illness in the workplace – how we should all respond
Marketing degrees are generally focused on accomplishing two primary goals: Gaining leadership or management skills and knowledge, and obtaining education in specialized areas of marketing. There are several types of master’s degree available, such as a Master of Science (MS) in marketing or a Master of Business Administration (MBA) with a marketing concentration. Either degree will help with professional advancement, though the MBA might be better suited for advancements involving management responsibility.
Market research analysts, managers, and directors are responsible for collecting information about the target market of a brand or product, and develop tools to analyze buyer behavior and forecast sales. They may be directly or indirectly involved in researching buyer preferences and behavior, conducting market research surveys or focus groups, and interpreting data for marketing teams and other departments.
A 2011 meta analyses has found that the factors with the greatest impact on sales performance are a salesperson’s sales related knowledge (knowledge of market segments, sales presentation skills, conflict resolution, and products), degree of adaptiveness (changing behaviour based on the aforementioned knowledge), role clarity (salesperson’s role is to expressly to sell), cognitive aptitude (intelligence) and work engagement (motivation and interest in a sales role).
Financial services businesses include banks, brokerage firms, credit unions, credit cards, insurance companies, asset and investment companies such as private equity firms, private equity funds, real estate investment trusts, sovereign wealth funds, pension funds, mutual funds, index funds, and hedge funds, stock exchanges, and other companies that generate profits through investment and management of capital.
In 2012 advertising, promotions and marketing managers earned a median annual salary of $115,750. Jobs in this category are expected to grow by 12 percent through 2022, according to the BLS. Some common responsibilities associated with this position include creating marketing campaigns, meeting with clients and determining which type of media in which a company should invest its marketing efforts.
Morgan, in Riding the Waves of Change (Jossey-Bass, 1988), suggests that one of the greatest limitations of the 4 Ps approach “is that it unconsciously emphasizes the inside–out view (looking from the company outwards), whereas the essence of marketing should be the outside–in approach”. An inside-out approach is the traditional planning approach where the organisation identifies its desired goals and objectives which are often based around what has always been done. Marketing’s task then becomes one of “selling” the organisation’s products and messages to the “outside” or external stakeholders. In contrast, an outside-in approach first seeks to understand the needs and wants of the consumer. 
“Considering 70 percent of all phones today are smartphones, it’s increasingly important that brands and organizations think about how to connect with consumers on this increasingly important digital device,” Crow explains.
Some authors cite a further P – Packaging – this is thought by many to be part of Product, but in certain markets (Japan, China for example) and with certain products (perfume, cosmetics) the packaging of a product has a greater importance – maybe even than the product itself.
Demand for a good begins to taper off, and the firm may opt to discontinue manufacture of the product. This is so, if revenue for the product comes from efficiency savings in production, over actual sales of a good/service. However, if a product services a niche market, or is complementary to another product, it may continue manufacture of the product, despite a low level of sales/revenue being accrued.
Sports marketing professionals have a solid professional background that spans economics, sports marketing strategies, and media advertising. In the high-intensity world of professional and collegiate sports, these account executives are responsible for securing ad placements and identifying and developing sponsorship opportunities. They may also work with leagues, teams, and individual players and their representatives to coordinate various marketing activities.
In recent decades, states modeled some of their assets and enterprises after business enterprises. In 2003, for example, the People’s Republic of China modeled 80% of its state-owned enterprises on a company-type management system. Many state institutions and enterprises in China and Russia have transformed into joint-stock companies, with part of their shares being listed on public stock markets.
Google My Business (GMB) is a free tool for businesses to manage their online presence on Google, including Search and Maps. By verifying and updating your information, this easy-to-use platform will help customers find you and tell them the story of your business. 1.) Claim & Verify your …
STREETWISE Lexpert: Canadian law firms go where the work takes them on mining megaprojects Subscriber content When lawyers follow their clients halfway around the world to look out for their interests, it layers on additional challenges – and some are minefields.
The proliferation and increasing complexity of the laws governing business have forced increasing specialization in corporate law. It is not unheard of for certain kinds of corporate transactions to require a team of five to ten attorneys due to sprawling regulation. Commercial law spans general corporate law, employment and labor law, health-care law, securities law, mergers and acquisitions, tax law, employee benefit plans, food and drug regulation, intellectual property law on copyrights, patents, trademarks, telecommunications law, and financing.
Jump up ^ Smith, W.R., “Product Differentiation and Market Segmentation as Alternative Marketing Strategies,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 21, No. 1 , 1956, pp. 3–8 and reprinted in Marketing Management, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1995, pp. 63–65
Marketing researchers use statistical methods (such as quantitative research, qualitative research, hypothesis tests, Chi-square tests, linear regression, correlation coefficients, frequency distributions, Poisson and binomial distributions, etc.) to interpret their findings and convert data into information.
The Chartered Institute of Marketing defines marketing as “the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably.” A similar concept is the value-based marketing which states the role of marketing to contribute to increasing shareholder value. In this context, marketing can be defined as “the management process that seeks to maximise returns to shareholders by developing relationships with valued customers and creating a competitive advantage.”
To overcome the deficiencies of the 4 P model, some authors have suggested extensions or modifications to the original model. Extensions of the four P’s include “people”, “process”, and “physical evidence” and are often applied in the case of services marketing Other extensions have been found necessary in retail marketing, industrial marketing and internet marketing:
Other important criticisms include that the marketing mix lacks a strategic framework and is therefore unfit to be a planning instrument, particularly when uncontrollable, external elements are an important aspect of the marketing environment. 
Some specialized businesses may also require licenses, either due to laws governing entry into certain trades, occupations or professions, that require special education or to raise revenue for local governments. Professions that require special licenses include law, medicine, piloting aircraft, selling liquor, radio broadcasting, selling investment securities, selling used cars, and roofing. Local jurisdictions may also require special licenses and taxes just to operate a business.
Public relations (or PR, as an acronym) is the use of media tools by a firm in order to promote goodwill from an organization to a target market segment, or other consumers of a firm’s good/service. PR stems from the fact that a firm cannot seek to antagonize or inflame its market base, due to incurring a lessened demand for its good/service. Organizations undertake PR in order to assure consumers, and to forestall negative perceptions towards it.
Owners may manage their businesses themselves, or employ managers to do so for them. Whether they are owners or employees, managers administer three primary components of the business’ value: financial resources, capital (tangible resources), and human resources. These resources are administered in at least six functional areas: legal contracting, manufacturing or service production, marketing, accounting, financing, and human resources.
The second layer of permissions refers to the access you share with partners or agencies to manage your business assets, such as your Pages or ad accounts. A Page or ad account can only live within a single Business Manager at a time but they can have multiple Partners or individual accounts that access, post, and manage ads on its behalf. This shared permission can be rescinded at any time.
A very detailed and well-established body of rules that evolved over a very long period of time applies to commercial transactions. The need to regulate trade and commerce and resolve business disputes helped shape the creation of law and courts. The Code of Hammurabi dates back to about 1772 BC for example, and contains provisions that relate, among other matters, to shipping costs and dealings between merchants and brokers. The word “corporation” derives from the Latin corpus, meaning body, and the Maurya Empire in Iron-Age India accorded legal rights to business entities.