A firm using a sales orientation focuses primarily on the selling/promotion of the firm’s existing products, rather than determining new or unmet consumer needs or desires. Consequently, this entails simply selling existing products, using promotion and direct sales techniques to attain the highest sales possible.[23] The sales orientation “is typically practised with unsought goods.” [24] One study found that industrial companies are more likely to hold a sales orientation than consumer goods companies. [25] The approach may also suit scenarios in which a firm holds dead stock, or otherwise sells a product that is in high demand, with little likelihood of changes in consumer tastes diminishing demand.
A firm focusing on a production orientation specializes in producing as much as possible of a given product or service in order to achieve economies of scale or economies of scope. A production orientation may be deployed when a high demand for a product or service exists, coupled with certainty that consumer tastes and preferences remain relatively constant (similar to the sales orientation). The so-called production era is thought to have dominated marketing practice from the 1860s to the 1930s, but other theorists argue that evidence of the production orientation can still be found in some companies or industries. Specifically Kotler and Armstrong note that the production philosophy is “one of the oldest philosophies that guides sellers… [and] is still useful in some situations.” [27]
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale.
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An emerging area of study and practice concerns internal marketing, or how employees are trained and managed to deliver the brand in a way that positively impacts the acquisition and retention of customers (employer branding).
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Jump up ^ Banting, P.M. & Ross, R.E., “The marketing mix: A Canadian perspective,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, vol. 1, no. 1, 1973, doi:10.1007/BF02729310; van Waterschoot, W. and van den Bulte, C., “The 4P Classification of the Marketing Mix Revisited,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 56, No. 4, 1992, p. 84; see also Culliton’s original article in Culliton, J. The Management of Marketing Costs, Research Bulletin, Harvard University, 1948
Research and development refer to activities in connection with corporate or government innovation. Research and development constitute the first stage of development of a potential new service or product. Research and development are very difficult to manage since the defining feature of the research is that the researchers do not know in advance exactly how to accomplish the desired result.[citation needed]
To overcome the deficiencies of the 4 P model, some authors have suggested extensions or modifications to the original model. Extensions of the four P’s include “people”, “process”, and “physical evidence” and are often applied in the case of services marketing[47] Other extensions have been found necessary in retail marketing, industrial marketing and internet marketing:
Canada’s oilsands are getting a taste of their slower-growth future. Husky Energy Inc. on Thursday became the second big oilsands producer to say that it throttled back first-quarter production in response to steeper discounts for Canadian crude.
Jump up ^ Hunt, Shelby D. and Goolsby, Jerry, “The Rise and Fall of the Functional Approach to Marketing: A Paradigm Displacement Perspective,” in Historical Perspectives in Marketing: Essays in Honour of Stanley Hollander, Terence Nevett and Ronald Fullerton (eds), Lexington, MA, Lexington Books, pp 35-37, sdh.ba.ttu.edu/Rise%20and%20Fall%20(88).pdf; Wilkie, W. L. and Moore, E.S., “Scholarly Research in Marketing: Exploring the “4 Eras” of Thought Development,” Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2003, p. 123; Constantinides, E., “The Marketing Mix Revisited: Towards the 21st Century Marketing,” Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 22, 2006, pp 407-438,