The efficient and effective operation of a business, and study of this subject, is called management. The major branches of management are financial management, marketing management, human resource management, strategic management, production management, operations management, service management, and information technology management.[citation needed]
Marketing is defined by the American Marketing Association as “the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.”[20] The term developed from the original meaning which referred literally to going to a market to buy or sell goods or services. Marketing tactics include advertising as well as determining product pricing.
A 2011 meta analyses[26] has found that the factors with the greatest impact on sales performance are a salesperson’s sales related knowledge (knowledge of market segments, sales presentation skills, conflict resolution, and products), degree of adaptiveness (changing behaviour based on the aforementioned knowledge), role clarity (salesperson’s role is to expressly to sell), cognitive aptitude (intelligence) and work engagement (motivation and interest in a sales role).
Test your product: So, you understand who your prospective customers are and you’ve done some research on their needs. You’ve designed a product to meet their needs. But have you tested it? Sometimes, there could be something (big or small) about your product that put people off and that would limit its success in the marketplace. Be sure to get feedback from people who fit your target customer profile.

Service businesses offer intangible goods or services and typically charge for labor or other services provided to government, to consumers, or to other businesses. Interior decorators, beauticians, hairstylists, make-up artists, tanning salons, laundromats, dry cleaners, and pest controllers are service businesses.
The term “marketing environment” relates to all of the factors (whether internal, external, direct or indirect) that affect a firm’s marketing decision-making/planning. A firm’s marketing environment consists of three main areas, which are:
The ‘marketing concept’ proposes that in order to satisfy the organizational objectives, an organization should anticipate the needs and wants of potential consumers and satisfy them more effectively than its competitors. This concept originated from Adam Smith’s book The Wealth of Nations, but would not become widely used until nearly 200 years later.[11] Marketing and Marketing Concepts are directly related.
Jump up ^ Porcu, L., del Barrio-Garcia, S., and Kitchen, P.J., “How Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) works? A theoretical review and an analysis of its main drivers and effects/ ¿Cómo funciona la Comunicación Integrada de Marketing (CIM)? Una revisión teórica y un análisis de sus antecedentes y efectos,” COMUNICACIÓN Y SOCIEDAD, Vol. XXV, Núm. 1, 2012, pp 313-348
Owners may manage their businesses themselves, or employ managers to do so for them. Whether they are owners or employees, managers administer three primary components of the business’ value: financial resources, capital (tangible resources), and human resources. These resources are administered in at least six functional areas: legal contracting, manufacturing or service production, marketing, accounting, financing, and human resources.[citation needed]
Jump up ^ Hunt, Shelby D. and Goolsby, Jerry, “The Rise and Fall of the Functional Approach to Marketing: A Paradigm Displacement Perspective,” in Historical Perspectives in Marketing: Essays in Honour of Stanley Hollander, Terence Nevett and Ronald Fullerton (eds), Lexington, MA, Lexington Books, pp 35-37, sdh.ba.ttu.edu/Rise%20and%20Fall%20(88).pdf; Wilkie, W. L. and Moore, E.S., “Scholarly Research in Marketing: Exploring the “4 Eras” of Thought Development,” Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2003, p. 123; Constantinides, E., “The Marketing Mix Revisited: Towards the 21st Century Marketing,” Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 22, 2006, pp 407-438,